Rectal cancer with local invasion presents a particular operative challenge. The standard procedure for locally advanced rectal cancer is a total pelvic exenteration (TPE), which is a highly morbid procedure. For select patients, the literature has demonstrated that bladder-sparing techniques involving en bloc resection of the prostate are safe and oncologically acceptable.1 Additionally, case studies have demonstrated the success of combined approaches using laparoscopic techniques.2,3 However, little has been published concerning the combined robotic-assisted approach of an abdominoperineal resection (APR) and en bloc prostatectomy with vesicourethral anastomosis. Robotic assistance offers several advantages for pelvic surgery, including better visualization using 3D technology and wristed instruments. Furthermore, research has shown the advantages of robotic surgery for rectal cancer resections.4,5 Our video presents a case of T4N0M0 rectal cancer, 1 cm from the dentate line, in a 63 year old male with invasion anteriorly into the prostate. After completing chemotherapy and radiation, a combined approach with a colorectal surgeon and a urologist was done using the daVinci Xi robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA). The important steps of the procedure are demonstrated in the attached video. Pathology revealed a 5 cm mucinous adenocarcinoma with treatment effect and negative margins. The patient did well post-operatively with no complications. He was discharged on post-operative day 5. Robotic-assisted procedures offer the advantage of precision and visualization for pelvic operations. For locally invasive rectal cancer, robotic surgery allows the opportunity to create novel techniques for select patients in order to reduce the number of TPEs.
Contributors: Nell Maloney Patel We present a case of a seventy-two year old female found on colonoscopy to have multiple polyps and an ascending colon mass that was biopsy proven adenocarcinoma who underwent a robotic assisted right hemicolectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis. DOI# http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/54hba94993 Editor Recruited by: Vincent Obias
Contributors: Craig Rezac, MD This video demonstrates the basic steps of a Robotic-Assisted Total Abdominal Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis using the da Vinci Xi Robotic System. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/zr41dcfdmt
Contributors: Jimmy Lin and Craig Rezac This procedure is a da Vinci Robot assisted Right hemicolectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis performed on a 52 year-old male who was found to have a cecal adenocarcinoma on screening colonoscopy. Metastatic work-up was negative. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/gb6xh7cx7u Editor Recruited by: Vincent Obias
Contributors: Jimmy Lin and Craig Rezac This procedure is a da Vinci Xi Robot assisted low anterior resection with diverting loop ileostomy performed on a 64 year old male patient who on work-up of hematochezia and change in bowel habits was found to have a locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma approximately 5-6cm from the anal verge. The patient was found to have a single subcentimeter metastatic liver lesion, which was treated with radiofrequency ablation. He was treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation prior to undergoing surgery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/vk8yonl7gj Editor Recruited By: Vincent Obias, MD, MS
A rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is an epithelial lined tract between the rectum and vagina. This can result in recurrent urinary tract or vaginal infections, but also creates a significant psychosocial burden for the patient. Unfortunately, due to the individual complexities of these patients, they are difficult to manage despite the numerous surgical options presently described.1 Generally RVFs are classified as low, middle or high, due to the location of the rectal and vaginal opening. Due to this, both low and middle RVFs may be approached via anal, perineal or vaginal routes. Where as high RVFs, which have their vaginal opening near the cervix, generally require an abdominal approach for repair.2 Traditionally for high RVFs patients underwent open surgery; however, minimally invasive surgery has recently been widely accepted as the preferred approach. Although surgeons are becoming more facile with these approaches, both pelvic surgery and a reoperative abdomen still impose significant technical difficulties.3,4 Here, we present the video of a female with a complex surgical history including a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy, creation and reversal of a Hartmann’s colostomy as well as a loop ileostomy due to a locally advanced recto-sigmoid cancer, who subsequently developed a rectovaginal fistula and was managed minimally invasively with a multidisciplinary novel approach through a posterior vaginectomy; an approach that utilized the enhanced magnification of the Robot, which improved visualization and allowed access into an uninflamed, virgin plane, resulting in minimal loss of vaginal length. Contributors: Milind D. Kachare, M.D. Osvaldo Zumba, M.D. Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D. Nell Maloney-Patel, M.D. Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Hackensack University Medical Center, City of Hope National Medical Center
Contributors: Jimmy Lin and Craig Rezac Robotic surgery offers benefits to both patient and surgeon by allowing smaller incisions and faster recovery time, to better accuracy, flexibility and control. Many procedures which had previously been conducted with laparoscopy, or open surgery, are becoming further improved upon in robotic surgery. This video demonstrates two such procedures, from different specialities, being performed; the low anterior resection and colovesical fistula repair. DOI#: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/f1frvag53q
Contributors: Jimmy Lin and Craig Rezac Robotic surgery offers benefits to both patient and surgeon by allowing smaller incisions and faster recovery time, to better accuracy, flexibility and control. Many procedures which have previously been conducted with laparoscopy, or open surgery, are becoming further improved in robotic surgery. This video demonstrates once such procedure, the extended right hemicolectomy. DOI# http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/rv3nkbech0 Authors Recruited By: Vincent Obias. MD. MS
We present a case of a 21-year-old male with a one-day history of right lower quadrant pain and CT scan findings suspicious for a perforated Meckel’s Diverticulum who underwent a robotic assisted small bowel resection with an intracorporeal anastomosis. Contributors: Milind D. Kachare, M.D. Nisha Dhir, M.D., FACS University Medical Center of Princeton at Plainsboro, Rutgers - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
It is well-accepted that recurrent or complicated diverticulitis is an indication for surgical resection. Minimally invasive techniques, like the daVinci robot, have been developed to enable better visualization of the pelvis with articulating instruments. However, many times, the minimally invasive approach is deferred for cases of severe disease and adhesions. This video demonstrates the dissection of a significantly diseased sigmoid colon during a robotic-assisted low anterior resection. As you can see, with surgeon experience and patience, even complicated cases can be done successfully using the robot. The patient is a 65-year-old male with a history of multiple episodes of diverticulitis. The most recent episode was complicated by a pericolonic abscess, which was treated non-operatively with drainage and antibiotics. He presents 2 months later for an elective resection.
The surgical management of rectovaginal fistulas remains difficult, as they tend to be recurrent and vary widely in location and complexity. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman with a low-lying rectovaginal fistula who initially underwent chemoradiation and a Low Anterior Resection for a low-lying rectal cancer. Her course was uneventful until two years post-operatively, at which time her anastomotic staple line became stenotic with associated bleeding. This was initially addressed by Gastroenterology who executed a dilation and achieved hemostasis with Argon Plasma Coagulation. This remedied the stenosis, however, it was complicated by the formation of a rectovaginal fistula. Due to the low-lying location and its presence in an irradiated field, a transvaginal approach with an interposed gracilis flap was elected for repair.
Contributors: Craig Rezac, MD Low anterior resection and rectopexy is the optimal treatment for well functioning patients with rectal prolapse. Reoperations for rectal prolapse may be challenging due to significant adhesions. Use of the robot for low anterior resection and rectopexy is safe, feasible and may be more useful than laparoscopy especially in challenging cases. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/vkp7axh60l
Contributors: Craig Rezac, MD Treatment for recurrent or complicated diverticulitis is surgical resection. Minimally invasive techniques are associated with decreased length of stay and decreased post operative pain. However, laparoscopic low anterior resection is challenging especially in the narrow pelvis. Robotic surgery may overcome these obstacles and allow more surgery for divertiuclitis to be performed minimally invasively. These surgeons always do a LAR for diverticulitis because they transect on the proximal rectum. They take down the lateral stalks in order to mobilize the rectum and get the eea stapler through the rectum easier. Bilateral ureteral stents are routinely placed to better identify the ureters. This is especially important in cases of chronic/active diverticulitis or diverticulitis that has been complicated by abscess or fistula. This is the preference of the surgeon. DOI# http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/y1f1omu3mt
Contributors: Nell Maloney Patel, MD and Craig Rezac, MD There is little role for the use of minimally invasive techniques in the emergent setting for ulcerative colitis. However, for elective procedures, studies have shown that laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy with IPAA is equivalent to open IPAA with regards to safety and feasibility, and that laparoscopic IPAA is associated with shorter recovery times, earlier return to bowel function, less post operative pain and a better cosmetic result. However laparoscopic approaches are difficult especially in the narrow pelvis. These challenges maybe overcome with the daVinci robotic system. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/r1oi8fx5c2 Editor Recruited by: Neil Tanna
Contributors: Thomas Bauer, MD and Glenn Parker, MD Up to 25 % of diaphragmatic hernias may be incidentally diagnosed in adulthood. If symptomatic, patients often present with epigastric pain, chest pain or persistent cough. When found, they should be repaired to prevent incarceration and strangulation. DOI #: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/wy2y9m77gv
- Associate Professor of Surgery
- Section Chief, Colon and Rectal Surgery
Craig Rezac, M.D., is a Double Board Certified Surgeon with clinical interest in Colon and Rectal Surgery. American-born, Dr. Rezac received his doctorate degree from Pisa Medical School in Pisa, Italy in 1995, and his undergraduate degree from Adelphi University in Long Island, NY in 1981. Dr. Rezac is licensed to practice in New Jersey and the Republic of Italy.
Currently, Dr. Rezac serves as Associate Professor of Surgery, Section Chief Colon and Rectal Surgery at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (RWJMS) in New Brunswick, NJ. He also serves as Staff Physician, General Surgery at Somerset Medical Center in Somerville, NJ.
After receiving his medical degree, Dr. Rezac completed a Surgical Externship at La Spezia Hospital in La Spezia, Italy. He then completed a General Surgery Internship at the Monmouth Hospital in Long Branch, NJ. This was followed by a General Surgery Residency at UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Brunswick, NJ, and a Colorectal Surgery Fellowship at UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in Edison, NJ. Lastly, Dr. Rezac completed a Laparoscopic Fellowship at Hackensack University Hospital in Hackensack, NJ.
Dr. Rezac holds numerous medical certifications as follows: Cyberknife, Davinci Laparoscopic Robotic Surgery, Davinci Advanced Laparoscopic Robotic Surgery for Colon and Rectal Surgery, American Heart Association (BLS/CPR), Trans Anal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM), and Stapled Trans Anal Rectal Resection (STARR). Dr. Rezac has the distinct honour of being the first doctor in New Jersey to be certified in both TEM and STARR.
Dr. Rezac is a member of several professional associations, including: American College of Surgeons (Fellowship), American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, American College of Surgeons, New Jersey Chapter, and the New Jersey Chapter of American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (past-President).
Dr. Rezac has received a number of honors and awards for outstanding performance both academically and professionally. He currently serves on several major committees, in addition to school and hospital committees, while continuing to meet various teaching and clinical responsibilities.
Dr. Rezac has received substantial grant support for medical studies and has been widely published in national and international medical journals, books, monographs, chapters, and articles. Dr. Rezac has generously shared his time and talents to deliver over 30 scientific and clinical presentations around the world.
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