We found 42 results for University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine in video
Inferior oblique myectomy is a type of strabismus surgical procedure that aims to weaken an extraocular muscle by transecting it. The patient is a four old with a history of inferior oblique overaction and vertical strabismus, which can be corrected by resection of the inferior oblique muscle. The ointment was applied to the cornea. Forced ductions were performed and identified restriction of the inferior oblique. A conjunctival incision is made in the fornix. Tenon's capsule is dissected to expose the Inferior Oblique. The inferior oblique muscle is isolated using a Stevens tenotomy hook followed by Jameson muscle hooks. The inferior rectus was identified on a steven’s hook medially to the inferior oblique. The lateral rectus was then identified on a steven’s hook laterally to the inferior oblique. This was done to ensure that neither muscle was incorporated with the portions of the inferior oblique muscle to be cut. Wescott scissors were used to cut both ends of the muscle. Bipolar cautery forceps were used to cauterize the resected proximal and distal ends of the inferior oblique muscle. The two ends were released and the remaining muscle ends were allowed to retract into the orbit. The conjunctiva was closed using a plain gut suture. No complications arose during the procedure. Postoperatively, the patient had a subconjunctival hemorrhage, injection, and pain that decreased over the following week. Neomycin-polymyxin-dexamethasone drops were applied daily to prevent infection and inflammation. At the one follow-up, the redness and pain had resolved. Inferior oblique myectomy effectively treats inferior oblique overaction and vertical strabismus associated with this condition.
A brief patient history is given, followed by preoperative imaging, intraoperative repair, and postoperative imaging.
This video showcases a minimal incision, partial sternotomy exposure for complete ASD patch repair performed at Arkansas Children's Hospital.
This video highlights a pulmonary valve replacement in a patient with Tetralogy of Fallot.
Introduction Muscle recession is a type of strabismus surgical procedure that aims to weaken an extraocular muscle by adjusting its insertion posteriorly closer to its origin. The patient is a 14-year-old with dissociated vertical deviation, which can be corrected with recession of the superior rectus muscle. Methods A conjunctival incision is made in the fornix. Tenon's capsule is dissected to expose the superior rectus muscle. The superior rectus muscle is isolated using a Stevens tenotomy hook followed by a Jameson muscle hook. After the remaining Tenon's attachments are cleared, the muscle is secured at both poles with a double-armed 6-0 VicrylTM suture and double-locking bites. The muscle is then disinserted from the sclera with Manson-Aebli scissors. A caliper is used to mark the predetermined distance of muscle reinsertion. Next, the muscle is reattached to the sclera with partial thickness bites and then tied down to its new location. The conjunctival incision is closed with 6-0 plain gut sutures. Results No complications arose during the procedure. Postoperatively, the patient had subconjunctival hemorrhage, injection, and pain that decreased over the following week. Neomycin-polymyxin-dexamethasone drops were applied daily to prevent infection and inflammation. At the three-month follow up, the redness had resolved. The dissociated vertical deviation had improved. Conclusion Superior rectus recession is a safe procedure that can effectively treat vertical strabismus. By: Michelle Huynh College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA email@example.com Surgeons: Brita Rook, MD Arkansas Children’s Hospital – Department of Ophthalmology, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA BSRook@uams.edu Joseph Fong, MD Jones Eye Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA JFong@uams.edu Video was performed at Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA.
Chiari decompression is a common neurosurgical procedure. Chiari malformations present with a number of symptoms including Valsalva-induced headaches, swallowing dysfunction, and sleep apnea. Chiari malformations can also cause syringomyelia and syringobulbia. Surgical procedures used for the treatment of Chiari malformation include bone-only decompression (posterior fossa craniectomy +/- cervical laminectomy), craniectomy/laminectomy with duraplasty, and craniectomy/laminectomy/duraplasty with shrinkage or resection of the cerebellar tonsils. The procedure used depends on the specifics of the patient’s condition and the preference of the surgeon. The patient presented here had undergone a prior Chiari decompression at the age of 20 months. This was bone-only with posterior fossa craniectomy and C1-2 laminectomy. The dura was not opened due to the presence of a venous lake. He initially had improvement in his symptoms. However, his headaches and snoring recurred, balance worsened, and dysphagia never improved. Therefore, a repeat Chiari decompression at the age of 28 months was performed as presented here.
Contributors: John Loomis (Texas A&M Health Science Center) Purpose: Relief of UPJ obstruction Instruments: da Vinci Robotic Surgical System Landmarks: Retropertionem, ureters, kidney, lower pole crossing vessel Procedure: The laparoscopic transposition of lower pole crossing vessels, or "vascular hitch", has been successfully used to relieve purely extrinsic ureteropelvic junction obstruction in both adults and children. This case describes the surgical steps for successfully completing this technique. Our patient is a 7 year old female. After induction of general anesthesia, the patient is placed in the right or left lateral decubitus postion (depending on the affected kidney). Access to the abdomen is accomplished with an infraumbilical incision utilizing a Veress needle, with insufflation and saline drop test. A 12mm port is placed in this incision and 2 robotic ports are placed under direct supervision, one in the midline of the suprapubic region and the other in the midline of the epigastric region, with an additional 5mm assistant port. Release of the liver or splenic attachments, with mobilization of the right and left colon, allows for exposure. After doing so, dissection into the retroperitoneum reveals the ureter, which can then be followed to the UPJ and the vessels of interest. Careful dissection of these vessels, the ureter, and lower pole, allows for mobilization of the crossing vessels to a more cranial point on the renal pelvis. "Hitching" of the vessels to this point is accomplished with interrupted 5-0 PDS, and allows for relief of the UPJ obstruction. The lower pole of the kidney is observed throughout to ensure adequate vascularization after hitching of the crossing blood vessels. Closure of the fascia and skin is accomplished in the usual fashion. Conflict of Interest: None References: 1. Sakoda A1, Cherian A, Mushtaq I., "Laparoscopic transposition of lower pole crossing vessels ('vascular hitch') in pure extrinsic pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction in children.", BJU Int. 2011 Oct;108(8):1364-1368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10657.x 2. Gundeti MS, Reynolds WS, Duffy PG, Mushtaq I. "Further experience with the vascular hitch (laparoscopic transposition of lower pole crossing vessels): an alternate treatment for pediatric ureterovascular ureteropelvic junction obstruction.", J Urol. 2008 Oct;180:1832-1836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2008.05.055 3. Schneider A, Ferreira CG, Delay C, Lacreuse I, Moog R, Becmeur F., "Lower pole vessels in children with pelviureteric junction obstruction: laparoscopic vascular hitch or dismembered pyeloplasty?", J Pediatric Urol. 2013 Aug;9(4):419-423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2012.07.005 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/maqcmavan0
Contributors: Gresham T. Richter (University of Arkansas for the Medical Scienc) 1) Purpose: Untreated Eustachian Tube dysfunction can lead to retraction of the tympanic membrane (TM) and, eventually, an atelectatic middle ear. The insertion of a tympanostomy tube attempts to equalize the air pressure of the middle ear with the environment, allowing for the stabilization of the TM. Bobbin style tubes have an average extrusion time of less than a year while T-tubes remain in place longer but risk residual perforation. (1) 2)Instruments: Rigid endoscopes were used to direct and record the procedure with standard video monitoring. Straight cupped forceps were used to debride the external auditory canal. A myringotomy knife was used to make the myringotomy. 3) Landmarks: After debridement of cerumen, the handle of the malleus and the incudostapedial joint are clearly visualized as indicated with titles in the video. Note that the patient's tympanic membrane shows an incudostapediopexy and deep retraction which is not the typical tympanic membrane position. 4) Procedure: Cerumen is debrided from the EAC. A myringotomy knife is used to enter the middle ear space which is suctioned. A t-tube is placed, and the position is confirmed. 5) Conflict of Interest and Source of Funding The authors have no financial disclosures. 6) References 1. Weigel MT, Parker MY, Goldsmith MM, Postma DS, Pillsbury HC. "A prospective randomized study of four commonly used tympanostomy tubes." The Laryngoscope. 1989 Mar;99(3):252-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1288/00005537-198903000-00003 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/7zpuk5q5r6
Contributors: Juliana Bonilla-Velez and Gresham Richter This patient presented with an anterior neck mass that was mobile with tongue movement. This is consistent with a thyroglossal duct cyst. The following video demonstrates the excision of a thyroglossal duct cyst using the Sistrunk procedure. DOI#: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/oelc9n6wlc
Contributors: Michael Golinko and Kumar Patel Removal of an approximately 5 cm congenital alopecia using an O to Z or yin-yang flap method. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/rbbu00mhp0
Videos: Theresa Wyrick and Asa Shnaekel In this video, we show the open surgical release of the A1/proximal transverse pulley in the thumb to restore movement in a patient with a thumb interphalangeal joint flexion deformity consistent with pediatric trigger thumb. DOI# http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/b70rwrfg0p
Contributors: Michael Golinko, MD, John Jones, MD, DMD, Kumar Patel, PA Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and genioplasty in 5y/o girl with lymphatic malformation. DOI#: https://doi.org/10.17797/hlo056ep2r
Contributors: Michael Golinko, Kumar Patel and Bridget O'Leary LeFort I osteotomy and advancement in 18y/o female patient with maxillary hypoplasia DOI: https://doi.org/10.17797/1cu3tz50yf
Contributors: Larry Hartzell Repair of the bilateral cleft lip deformity can be challenging to the cleft and craniofacial surgeon. The goals of an acceptable repair must include precise continuity of the cupid's bow, maximizing philtral length, and establishing a mucosa lined sulcus. We present an example of a repair of the bilateral incomplete lip as described by Millard. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/qefi9lqbam
Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is defined as inadequate formation of the pyriform apertures forming the bony nasal openings resulting in respiratory distress and cyanosis soon after birth. Some clues such as worsening distress during feeding and improvement during crying may indicate a nasal cause of respiratory distress rather than distal airway etiology. Inability or difficulty passing a small tube through the nasal cavities may suggest CNPAS. The presenting clinical features of CNPAS can be similar to other obstructive nasal airway anomalies such as choanal atresia. Diagnosis is confirmed via CT scan with a total nasal aperture less than 11mm. CNPAS may occur in isolation or it may be a sign of other developmental abnormalities such as holoprosencephaly, anterior pituitary abnormalities, or encephalocele. Some physical features of holoprosencephaly include closely spaced eyes, facial clefts, a single maxillary mega incisor, microcephaly, nasal malformations, and brain abnormalities (i.e. incomplete separation of the cerebral hemispheres, absent corpus callosum, and pituitary hormone deficiencies). It is important to rule out other associated abnormalities to ensure optimal treatment and intervention. Conservative treatment of CNPAS includes humidification, nasal steroids, nasal decongestants and reflux control. Failure of conservative treatment defined by respiratory or feeding difficulty necessitates more aggressive intervention. The most definitive treatment for CNPAS is surgical intervention to enlarge the pyriform apertures. Contributors: Adam Johnson MD, PhD Abby Nolder MD
Our patient is a 20 year old boy with severe maxillary hypoplasia with a history of bilateral cleft lip and palate. We performed a maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis. Nikhil Kamath, BS Aaron Smith, MD Michael S. Golinko, MD Kumar Patel, PA-C
Revision Facial Bipartition Osteotomy in 14y/o Female. Contributors: Aaron Smith, MD; Kumar Patel, PA; Ashley Bartels, BS; Rongsheng Cai, MD; Roop Gill, MD
Introduction Lymphatic malformations (LM) are composed of dilated, abnormal lymphatic vessels classified as macrocystic (single or multiple cysts >2 cm3), microcystic (<2 cm3), or mixed. This patient is a 5-month-old with a right neck mass consistent with macrocystic lymphatic malformation on MRI. This low-flow vascular malformation required surgical intervention. Methods The site was marked in a natural skin crease. Subplatysmal flaps were raised and malformation was immediately encountered. Blunt soft tissue dissection was performed immediately adjacent to the mass to reflect tissue off the fluid-filled lesion. Neurovascular structures were preserved in this process. Mass was removed in total and Penrose drain and neck dressing were placed. Results A complete resection was performed. LM was confirmed on pathology. Patient is doing well with no deficits noted. The drain was removed after 1 week. One-month follow-up showed no recurrence. Conclusion Macrocystic lymphatic malformations are amenable to surgical resection at low risk and without recurrence. By: Ravi W Sun, BE Surgeons: Luke T Small, MD Gresham Richter, MD Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA Recruited by: Gresham T Richter, MD
Skin grafting involves closure of an open wound using skin from another location which is transferred without its own vascular blood supply, relying on the vascular supply of the wound bed for survival. Skin grafts can be split thickness grafts that may involve meshing the donor skin in order to cover a proportionally larger area than the donor skin may have allowed. Besides the ability to cover a large area, a split thickness skin graft (STSG) allows for egress of fluids thereby maximizing close contact between the wound and the graft, which is necessary for vascularization and survival of the graft. A STSG can be taken at a variety of thicknesses but at any level taken, part of the donor dermis is left intact. Other options for skin grafts include full thickness grafts and biomedical grafts such as Integra. Full thickness skin grafts (FTSG) take the dermis as well as epidermis, usually covering smaller areas. FTSG has reduced contracture and often a better color match compared to STSG, but can have reduced survival due to increased thickness of tissue. The decision of the type of graft used in the procedure is made in accordance with the needs of the recipient site, the likelihood of graft take, and the availability of donor skin. The patient may either go home after the procedure with small areas of skin grafting with instructions for immobilization and elevation of the grafted area. The patient may be admitted depending on the patient’s general health status and the wound. Shear forces are avoided to the grafted area, and the donor site dressings may require prn changes due to fluid leakage until the skin epithelium regenerates from residual dermal structures. In the case presented in this video, a 12 year old girl was victim to a degloving injury of the left dorsal foot secondary to a motor vehicle accident. A STSG was determined appropriate for wound coverage as her wound bed had granulated in very well, covering all critical structures and providing a healthy bed for graft take. Linda Murphy MA Roop Gill, MD
Tympanoplasty with tragal cartilage graft, postauricular approach Blake Hollowoa, Michael Kubala, Gresham Richter. Introduction Tympanic membrane (TM) perforations arise from multiple conditions including acute otitis media, barotrauma, chronic eustachian tube dysfunction, or as a complication of pressure equalization (PE) tube insertion. Most perforations heal spontaneously or with conservative measures such as ototopical drops and dry ear precautions. Perforations that do not heal can lead to conductive hearing loss, chronic infection, or cholesteatoma. A 6-year-old patient with a persistent TM perforation presented with otalgia and otorrhea. A tympanoplasty with a tragal cartilage graft was performed to repair the patient’s TM perforation. Methods The patient was intubated and the operation carried out under general anesthesia. Facial electrodes were inserted for facial nerve monitoring. The patient was prepped and draped in sterile fashion. The external canal was suctioned and irrigated. A tragal incision was then made to harvest a 1 cm piece of cartilage for the TM graft. The tragal incision was closed with monocryl suture. A postauricular incision was made in the natural skin crease to expose the posterior canal. Canal incisions were made to enter the external canal. A tympanomeatal flap was elevated until the middle ear was entered. The previously harvested tragal cartilage graft was inserted medial to the native TM perforation. Gel-Foam was inserted medial to the graft for support. Tragal perichondrium was inserted lateral to the tragal cartilage graft. Gel-Foam was then inserted lateral to the graft for support. The periosteum and postauricular incision were closed with vicryl suture. The external canal was inspected, then antibiotic ointment and an ear wick was inserted. The patient was dressed using a Glasscock dressing. Results The patient was discharged the same day and seen in clinic two weeks from his surgery. The incisions were healing well with no indications of infection or wound dehiscence. His pain was resolved and an appointment for formal audiology was scheduled for a 3-month follow-up visit. Conclusion Tympanoplasty with a tragal cartilage graft using a postauricular approach is a successful method to surgically correct persistent tympanic membrane perforations.
Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) refers to the improper control of airflow through the nasopharynx. The term VPD denotes the clinical finding of incomplete velopharyngeal closure. Other terms used to describe VPD include velopharyngeal insufficiency, inadequacy and incompetence. However, the use of VPD has gained popularity over these terms as they may be used to infer a specific etiology of impaired velopharyngeal closure.1 Control of airflow through the nasopharynx is dependent on the simultaneous elevation of the soft palate and constriction of the lateral and posterior pharyngeal walls. Disruptions of this mechanism caused by structural, muscular or neurologic pathology of the palate or pharyngeal walls can result in VPD. VPD can result in a hypernasal voice with compensatory misarticulations, nasal emissions and aberrant facial movements during speech.2 The assessment of velopharyngeal function is best preformed by a multispecialty team evaluation including speech-language pathologists, prosthodontists, otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons. The initial diagnosis of VPD is typically made with voice and resonance evaluation conducted by a speech-language pathologist. To better characterize the patient’s VPD, video nasopharyngeal endoscopy or speech videofluoroscopy can be used to visualize the velopharyngeal mechanism during speech. VPD may first be managed with speech-language therapy and removable prostheses. For those who are good surgical candidates and do not fully respond to speech-language therapy, surgical intervention may be pursued. Surgical management of VPD is most commonly accomplished by pharyngeal flap procedures or sphincter pharyngoplasty. In this video, a superiorly based pharyngeal flap with a uvular mucosal lining flap was preformed for VPD in a five-year-old patient with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and aberrantly medial internal carotid arteries.
An endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) can be a sufficient alternative to a cerebral shunt in the treatment of noncommunicating forms of hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus can present with numerous signs and symptoms, including headache, vomiting, neck pain, macrocephaly, and vision impairment. Surgical procedure includes entrance of the lateral ventricles through a bur hole, and blunt/cautery fenestration of the third ventricular floor, which lies between the mamillary bodies and tuber cinereum. Choroid plexus cautery has been noted in the literature as being a viable addition to the procedure, in which a reduction in CSF production is achieved. Though, exact surgical procedure is left to the discretion of the surgeon. The patient presented is a 30-month-old boy with non-communicating obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis. The patient has a history of progressive developmental delays, balance issues, and increased seizure frequency from a known seizure disorder. Therefore, an endoscopic third ventriculostomy via right frontal approach was elected. Authors: William Fuell, Marcus Stephens M.D., Eylem Ocal M.D. Institutions: Arkansas Children's Hospital, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
This patient is a 9-month-old with a macrocystic lymphatic malformation (LM) of the left neck. LMs, the second most common type of head and neck vascular malformation, are composed of dilated, abnormal lymphatic vessels thought to occur due to abnormal development of the lymphatic system. A complete resection was performed, and LM was confirmed by pathology. Soft tissue dissection was performed immediately adjacent to the mass to reflect tissue off the fluid-filled lesion. Neurovascular structures were preserved in this process.
This patient is a seventeen-year-old female with Poland syndrome, resulting in a hypotrophic left pectoralis major muscle and rib anomalies. A tissue expander is implanted on the left side to increase the capacity of the left breast tissue in order to make room for a future, permanent implant.
We present a 16-year-old female with hypertrophic breasts of bra size 38H, bra strap grooving, and worsening back and posterior shoulder pain limiting activity and affecting posture, who underwent bilateral reduction mammoplasty using the Wise pattern inferior pedicle technique. 998 g of tissue was removed from the patient’s right breast, and 852 g of tissue was removed from the patient’s left breast. The procedure was uncomplicated; however, the postoperative period was complicated by minor skin breakdown at the most inferior portion of the incision along the inframammary fold, as well as some serous drainage that shortly resolved with treatment. Overall, the patient is satisfied with the results of the reduction. She reports comfortably wearing size 38C bras and has noticed significant improvement in back pain, shoulder pain, and bra strap grooving six months after the procedure.
Background Preauricular cysts are a subset of asymptomatic, dome-shaped lesions referred to as epidermoid cysts. Cysts vary in size and have the ability to grow in diameter over time. These cysts can occur anywhere on the body and usually contain keratin. Upon examination of a suspected cyst, different characteristics can specify its type. Dermoid cysts are typically odorous lesions found around the eyes or on the base of the nose. If the cyst did not originate from sebaceous glands, it is not deemed a sebaceous cyst. Typically, surgical intervention is required to fully remove the cyst and prevent further infections or growth. Introduction The video shows an 18-year-old female who presented with a preauricular cyst near her left ear. Upon history and physical examination, the mass was predicted to be a dermoid cyst rather than a sebaceous cyst. Surgical recommendations were given to perform an excisional biopsy of the cyst. The excision is displayed step-wise in the video. Methods A 2 cm incision was made just posterior to the lesion with a 15 blade scalpel. Dissection was carried with a sharp hemostat down the level of the parotid fascia. A 1 cm cystic structure was found adherent to the overlying dermis. An elliptical incision was then made over the mass and it was removed with the adherent overlying skin. The wound was then irrigated. Wound was closed in 3 layers. First, the deep layer was closed with 5-0 PDS in interrupted fashion, followed by 5-0 monocryl in running subcuticular fashion, followed by Dermabond Results The patient was returned to the care of anesthesia where she was awoken, extubated, and transported to PACU in stable condition. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged the same day. The specimen was sent for pathological analysis. The pathology report showed that the mass was an epidermal inclusion cyst.
In this video, we showcase the bilateral subcranial Le Fort III osteotomies with midface distraction using Kawamoto distractors. The surgery was performed in a 4-year-old boy with Crouzon Syndrome to correct his severe proptosis, increase the nasopharyngeal airway space and improve his severe negative overjet. Internal distractors were chosen to achieve maximum correction at this age. The patient undergoing surgery had no intraoperative or postoperative complications. A full separation of his facial bones was achieved. The patient had an uneventful recovery period, and there was a significant improvement in his proptosis and malocclusion. Santiago Gonzalez, BS, BA (1); Michael Golinko, MD, MS (2) 1. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences – College of Medicine 4301 W. Markham, #550 Little Rock, AR 72205 2. Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Plastic Surgery 2900 Children’s Way, 9th Floor Doctor’s Office Tower Nashville TN 37232
Basic Info: A 14-year-old male presented with chronic nasal obstruction and awake stertor. It was discovered that the patient had severe bilateral turbinate hypertrophy. A trial of Flonase and antihistamine was attempted with no improvement. It was recommended that the patient undergo a bilateral nasal turbinate reduction. This procedure is displayed step-wise in the video. Introduction: Chronic nasal obstruction can be caused by inferior turbinate hypertrophy. This video portrays a surgical treatment for turbinate hypertrophy, a turbinate trim with a microdebrider blade. Methods: An Afrin pledget was inserted into each nostril and lidocaine was injected into each inferior turbinate. Each turbinate was medially fractured using a freer. The microdebrider blade was used to trim the inferior 1/3 of each turbinate. A freer was used to out-fracture each inferior turbinate. Afrin pledgets were inserted into each nostril for hemostasis. Results: The inferior one-third of each inferior turbinate was removed via a microdebrider. Patient was sent to recovery in good condition, and Afrin pledgets were removed in recovery once hemostasis was achieved. No adverse reactions were reported by the surgeon or patient. Conclusion: Chronic nasal obstruction can be significantly improved by an inferior turbinate trim and out-fracture. Author: Merit Turner, BS, BS Surgeon: Gresham T. Richter, MD Institutions: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AR University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR
Cataract surgery is an appropriate option to consider when a patient’s visual function is no longer able to support their desired activities or when it becomes a detriment to their health and quality of life. Phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation is the most common procedure used to restore vision in patients with cataracts; it has been shown to restore vision to 20/40 or better in over 95% of cases  . The procedure uses an ultrasonic handpiece to fragment, emulsify, and aspirate an opacified lens all through a small incision in the cornea. A new intraocular lens made of acrylic is inserted into the remaining lens capsule and replaces the cataract. This outpatient surgery is typically sutureless and completed in 10-20 minutes. This case highlights a patient with a nuclear sclerotic cataract who elected for phacoemulsification extraction with intraocular lens implantation. The video showcases the proper placement of cataract removal instruments and phaco handpiece, completion of the most critical step of the procedure—the capsulorhexis and highlights proper placement of the intraocular lens. Authors Adam Neuhouser, Medical Student, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org. Victoria Ly, Medical Student, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, email@example.com. Ahmed A. Sallam, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Ophthalmology, Jones Eye Institute. firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction Muscle plication is a type of strabismus surgery that aims to tighten an extraocular muscle by partially folding the muscle under or over itself without disinsertion. The patient is a 14-year-old with alternating esotropia, who previously had a medial rectus recession. Therefore, she underwent plication of the lateral rectus muscle for this procedure. Methods A conjunctival incision is made in the fornix. Tenon's capsule is dissected to expose the lateral rectus muscle. The lateral rectus muscle is isolated using a Stevens tenotomy hook followed by a Jameson muscle hook. A Stevens tenotomy hook is used to sweep around the muscle to confirm the location of the muscle pole. A caliper is used to mark the predetermined amount of plication, starting at the muscle insertion and marking further posteriorly on the muscle. The muscle is then secured at the location marked by the caliper with a double-armed 6-0 VicrylTM suture with a central bite and double-locking bites at each pole of the muscle. Plication is achieved by bringing the muscle anteriorly and attaching it to the sclera adjacent to the muscle insertion with half-scleral depth bites in crossed-swords fashion. The muscle is tied down to its new location and 6-0 plain gut sutures are used to close the conjunctival incision. Results No complications arose during the procedure. Postoperatively, the patient had subconjunctival hemorrhage, injection, and pain that decreased over the following week. Neomycin-polymyxin-dexamethasone drops were applied daily to prevent infection and inflammation. At the three-month follow up, the redness had resolved. The alternating esotropia had improved. Conclusion Lateral rectus plication is a safe procedure that can effectively treat esotropia. By: Michelle Huynh College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA email@example.com Surgeons: Brita Rook, MD Arkansas Children’s Hospital – Department of Ophthalmology, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA BSRook@uams.edu Joseph Fong, MD Jones Eye Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA JFong@uams.edu Video was performed at Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA.
Author: Joshua Hagood Performing surgeon/coauthor: Brendan C. Stack, Jr., M.D., FACS, FACE Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
Phacoemulsification of a cataract Samia Nawaz, John Chancellor, and Ahmed Sallam Introduction A cataract can be simply defined as clouding of the lens of the eye. As the proteins that make up the lens of the eye harden and aggregate, a cataract forms. Cataracts are attributed to cause half of vision loss in the population and are most commonly related to age, although trauma, radiation exposure, and genetics have also been implicated. Cataracts can cause visual disturbance such as faded color perception, blurry vision, reduced night vision, and the perception of seeing halos around lights. Due to these hindrances, surgery is a common approach to alleviate the problems they cause. Phacoemulsification is a technique that uses ultrasonic waves to emulsify the dysfunctional lens, and we may then replace it with a synthetic one, clarifying vision. A 55 year old patient presented with reduced visual acuity due to a cataract in their left eye. A phacoemulsification of the cataract with implantation of an intraocular lens was performed here. Methods First, the patient’s eye was anesthetized using topical anesthetic. The patient was prepped and draped using sterile technique. A knife was then inserted into the cornea 90 degrees to the presumed incision site. This is known as the primary port incision. After this, incisions are placed 45 degrees to the presumed incision site, known as the secondary port incision. Viscoelastic was then inserted into the anterior chamber. Continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis was performed using capsulorrhexis forceps to open the anterior capsule of the eye. We began with a central linear cut, then pulled the needle in the direction of the desired tear, allowing the capsule to fold over. We had created a flap we used to gain entry to the lens. We injected salt solution under the anterior capsule in a step called hydrodissection, allowing the fluid to decompress the anterior capsule by compressing the central part of the lens. Nuclear rotation, a step which mobilizes the nucleus and minimizes the possibility of damage to the zonular fibers or posterior capsule, was then performed. Phacoemulsification was begun after this, where ultrasonic waves broke up the nucleus of the lens into smaller pieces, thereby fragmenting the cataract and emulsifying it into a mixture to be irrigated and aspirated. We then inserted an irrigation/aspiration instrument to remove residual pieces of lens cortex. The last step was insertion of the pre-folded synthetic lens. We reformed the anterior chamber with viscoelastic, and then loaded the lens in with a cartridge. It will unfold and settle into the eye with our adjustments. We then irrigated the wound to decrease leakage by swelling up the wound edges. Results The patient was discharged the same day and followed up in clinic 1 week later. The incisions were healing well with no indications of infection or wound dehiscence. Conclusion Phacoemulsification of a cataract is a successful and widely used way of alleviating reduced visual acuity as a result of cataract formation in the eye.
A 70-year-old male presented with persistent left-sided epistaxis, occurring 4 - 12 times a day for 3 weeks. Episodes lasted 10 - 15 minutes, but once required nasal packing at the ED. Introduction: Ligation of the sphenopalatine artery is often indicated for patients with persistent posterior epistaxis that cannot be attributed to other causes. This video demonstrates a step-wise endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation using hemoclips. Methods: In order to access the maxillary sinus cavity, a ball-tip probe was used to fracture the uncinate and a backbiter was used to remove the uncinate in its entirety. Once in the maxillary sinus, a backbiter was used to remove the tissue anterior to the normal ostium. A straight Tru-Cut was used to remove tissue posterior the natural ostium, taking down the posterior fontanelle. After this was done, a down-biter and a microdebrider blade were used to remove tissue inferior to the natural ostium towards the inferior turbinate. A caudal instrument was used to raise a subperiosteal flap just posterior to the left maxillary sinus posterior wall. Next, dissection from the inferior turbinate up to the top of the maxillary sinus was done from an inferior to superior direction, roughly 1 cm posterior to the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. The sphenopalatine artery was seen coming out of the sphenopalatine foramen and soft tissue was dissected off this artery. Two hemoclips were placed over the entire artery. Results: The patient was sent to recovery in good condition and no adverse reactions were reported by the surgeon or patient. Surgeons: Alissa Kanaan, MD. Zachary V. Anderson, MD. Institution: Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
A 30-year-old female underwent in-vitro fertilization and preimplantation genetic testing. The patient conceived after her first frozen embryo transfer (FET). Beta-hCG was measured at 85 and was doubling appropriately. Ultrasound showed an angular pregnancy with heart beat confirmed by MRI. The patient has a deep arcuate uterus which may have predisposed to angular pregnancy. She was given 3 doses of methotrexate unsuccessfully. Due to concern of rupture, she underwent a hysteroscopic injection of methotrexate inside the gestational sac at 7 weeks. Hysteroscopy showed the gestational sac within the angular portion of the uterus as well as the needle penetrating the gestational sac to inject the 50mg methotrexate (see video). Fetal heart rate ceased and the patient passed products of conception 1 week later. The patient had no further complications and had a normal pregnancy on her next FET that resulted in a livebirth.
Intro Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation is the gold standard procedure for removing cataracts in developed countries. The patient is an elderly adult who underwent the surgery to alleviate visual impairment from a significant age-related mixed cataract. Before the surgery, his visual acuity in the operative eye was 20/60. Methods This video highlights the steps of cataract phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in a small pupil case, including paracentesis, epinephrine-lidocaine (epi-Shugarcaine) injection for extra dilation and anesthesia, viscoelastic injection into the anterior chamber, capsulorrhexis, hydrodissection, phacoemulsification featuring a divide and conquer technique, cortical irrigation and aspiration, intraocular lens insertion, and wound sealing by hydration. Results No complications arose during the procedure. At the two-week postoperative follow-up, the patient’s visual acuity in the operative eye was 20/30. He denied any pain or discomfort. The visual acuity at four weeks was 20/20. The patient was pleased with results of the surgery. Conclusion Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective surgery for the management of cataracts. In the setting of a small pupil, intracameral epinephrine-lidocaine mix (epi-Shugarcaine) can be administered for extra dilation. Authors Michelle L. Huynh, BA College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA Joseph G. Chacko, MD Jones Eye Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA Surgeon Joseph G. Chacko, MD Jones Eye Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA Music Royalty Free Music from Bensound
Intro A chalazion is a lipogranulomatous inflammation of a meibomian gland in the eyelid that presents as a painless eyelid nodule or swelling. This pediatric patient presented with a chalazion that caused symptoms of eye irritation. The lesion had persisted for many months without improvement in response to warm compresses and eyelid scrubs with baby shampoo. Therefore, she underwent chalazion incision and curettage under sedation. Methods This video highlights the steps of chalazion incision and curettage. With a chalazion clamp tightened over the lesion, the eyelid is everted and an incision is made into the tarsus. A curette is used to scrape the walls of the cyst to remove the chalazion contents. At the conclusion of the procedure, the clamp is removed and pressure is applied to the area of the lesion for hemostasis. Conclusion Incision and curettage is a safe, relatively quick, and effective procedure for the management of persistent chalazia. Authors Michelle L. Huynh, BA College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA Muhammad Shamim, MD Jones Eye Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA Christian Ponder, MD Jones Eye Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA A. Paula Grigorian, MD Arkansas Children’s Hospital – Department of Ophthalmology, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA The procedure was performed at Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA. Music by bensound.com.
Temporal Artery Biopsy - gold standard for the diagnosis of temporal (giant cell) arteritis
This video teaches its viewers about facial capillary malformations, possible sequelae, as well as a treatment option, flash pulse dye laser. Authors: Maya Merriweather, BS and Richter T. Gresham, MD FACS Email: firstname.lastname@example.org and GTRichter@uams.edu Institutions: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children's Hospital
This video demonstrates a non-fenestrated extracardiac fontan. This is the final step in palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Authors: Ethan Chernivec; Chris Eisenring, ACNP-BC; Lawrence Greiten, MD; Brian Reemtsen, MD. Arkansas Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery, Little Rock, AR University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, Little Rock, AR
Replacement of a stenotic/irregular right ventricle to pulmonary artery Gore-Tex trileaflet graft with a novel KONECT RESILIA Aortic Valved Conduit. This is the only tissue valved conduit currently in use. This patient has d-transposition of the great arteries along with ASD, VSD, pulmonary stenosis, bovine left arch and aberrant right subclavian arteries. His previous operations include MBTS 4mm Gore-Tex graft, urgent shunt revision secondary to thrombosis and subsequent conversion to a 4mm central shunt, right atrial thrombectomy secondary to indwelling right atrial catheter, takedown of central shunt, primary pledgeted closure of pulmonary valve, Gore-Tex patch closure of ASD/VSD, Rastelli procedure with 24mm Gore-Tex trileaflet with bulging sinuses graft.
A brief patient history is provided, followed by preoperative imaging, intraoperative repair, and postoperative imaging.
Laryngeal Papillomatosis with Microlaryngoscopy and Bronchoscopy with Microdebridement, CO2 Laser Ablation, and Cidofovir Injections.video
Anna Celeste Gibson, B.S., Mariah Small, M.D., Gresham Richter, M.D. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital Introduction: A papilloma is a benign tumor that is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) commonly due to the strains 6 and 11. Children acquire these tumors intrapartum from an infected mother. HPV infects natural and metaplastic squamous mucosa which is the type of epithelium that lines the vocal folds. Tumors present as numerous, verrucous outgrowths from the mucosa and can become symptomatic due to mass effect. Common symptoms include hoarseness, dysphonia, aphonia and most concerning, respiratory distress. A 7-year-old patient with dysphonia secondary to laryngeal papillomatosis also known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis undergoes microlaryngoscopy and bronchoscopy with microdebridement, CO2 laser ablation, and cidofovir injections. Methods: The patient underwent spontaneous ventilation anesthesia and a dental guard was placed. The patient was positioned for microlaryngoscopy and the larynx was visualized and anesthetized with topical lidocaine. A zero-degree Hopkins rods was passed through the supraglottis, glottis and subglottis to document findings. There was supraglottic papillomatosis notably of the laryngeal surface of the left epiglottis, papillomatosis of the bilateral false vocal folds and papillomatosis of the bilateral true vocal folds with right more affected than left and anterior commissure involvement. The scope was then withdrawn and reintroduced to perform bronchoscopy. The scope was advanced through the trachea, carina and primary and secondary bronchi bilaterally. All were within normal limits. The Benjamin-Lindholm laryngoscope was passed into the vallecula and larynx and suspended in a normal fashion. The zero-degree Hopkins rod was used to visualize the larynx. 2 cc of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was injected into the bulk of the papillomas and then several biopsies were taken from this area. The microdebrider was used to debulk these areas. Protective eyewear was used by everyone in the operating room. The patient's face was protected with water soaked towels and all oxygen sources were removed from the patient. The CO2 laser was set to 2 watts continuous and used to debulk the papillomas with eschar noted after each application. Care was taken to avoid injury to the deep elements of the true vocal folds. Any residual papillomas at the anterior vocal folds were then injected with 1 cc of cidofovir. All instrumentation was removed, the patient was extubated, awakened, and transferred to the recovery room. Results: The patient was discharged the same day without complications. He will follow up for revision microdebridement, CO2 laser ablation and cidofovir injections. Conclusion: Microlaryngoscopy and bronchoscopy with microdebridement, CO2 laser ablation, and cidofovir injections is a successful solution for laryngeal papillomatosis and has been proven to eradicate the disease in many cases.
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