In this video, a 7-month-old patient presenting with primary congenital glaucoma and corneal clouding has an ab externo trabeculotomy performed on her left eye. The procedure begins with subconjunctival dissection and formation of a temporal scleral flap to locate the back wall of Schlemm’s canal (SC). A 270-degree circumferential trabeculotomy is performed with an illuminated microcatheter. The microcatheter is blocked from completing a full 360 degree pass due to scarring from a previously failed superior trabeculectomy. A scleral cutdown is used to retrieve the microcatheter. Another 40 degrees of trabecular meshwork (TM) is incised in the opposite direction using a metal trabeculotome.
Dermoid cysts are the most common orbital tumor in childhood. It is a developmental benign choristoma, arising from ectodermal sequestration along the lines of embryonic fusion of mesodermal processes. It is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and expands slowly due to constant desquamation and dermal glandular elements. They are usually smooth, painless, mobile, or partially mobile lesions mostly present at the fronto-zygomatic suture with proptosis, displacement, ptosis, or diplopia, depending on depth and extent1.
Although lateral orbital dermoid cysts are common, medial orbital dermoid cysts are rare2. Our patient had a right medial orbital congenital dermoid cyst since birth. At the presentation, the patient was 2 years old. On CT, the cyst measured 5 mm at the upper lid/medial canthus of the right orbit with subtle bone remodeling. He had a mildly clogged tear duct on the left but was otherwise asymptomatic. The decision was made to surgically remove the dermoid cyst.
In this video, we present a case of removal of a medial orbital dermoid cyst in a 2-year-old patient.
An incision was planned directly over the lesion. It was marked following the natural skin tension lines of the face to give the most natural esthetic appearance.
A small amount of Local anesthetic (0.5 ml of Lidocaine and Epinephrine) was injected under the skin to promote hemostasis and postoperative pain control.
A continuous Incision was made with a #15 blade on the skin.
Westcott scissors were used to dissect further through the subcutaneous tissue to expose the cyst and slowly dissect it from the normal tissue surrounding it.
Extra care was made to protect the integrity and avoid the rupture of the cyst.
After the entire cyst was freed from the surrounding tissue, it was carefully removed from its attachments to the periosteum using Westcott scissors.
The incision was closed in a two-layer fashion.
The deeper layer was closed by 6.0 Vicryl in a vertical mattress fashion with 2 interrupted sutures.
Next, wound edge eversion was achieved by placing two interrupted, superficial 5.0 fast-absorbing gut sutures. This will minimize the scar appearance.
Dermabond was applied next and the sutures were protected by a small piece of Tegaderm. This will be left in place until it spontaneously falls off.
Inferior oblique myectomy is a type of strabismus surgical procedure that aims to weaken an extraocular muscle by transecting it. The patient is a four old with a history of inferior oblique overaction and vertical strabismus, which can be corrected by resection of the inferior oblique muscle.
The ointment was applied to the cornea. Forced ductions were performed and identified restriction of the inferior oblique. A conjunctival incision is made in the fornix. Tenon’s capsule is dissected to expose the Inferior Oblique. The inferior oblique muscle is isolated using a Stevens tenotomy hook followed by Jameson muscle hooks. The inferior rectus was identified on a steven’s hook medially to the inferior oblique. The lateral rectus was then identified on a steven’s hook laterally to the inferior oblique. This was done to ensure that neither muscle was incorporated with the portions of the inferior oblique muscle to be cut. Wescott scissors were used to cut both ends of the muscle. Bipolar cautery forceps were used to cauterize the resected proximal and distal ends of the inferior oblique muscle. The two ends were released and the remaining muscle ends were allowed to retract into the orbit. The conjunctiva was closed using a plain gut suture.
No complications arose during the procedure. Postoperatively, the patient had a subconjunctival hemorrhage, injection, and pain that decreased over the following week. Neomycin-polymyxin-dexamethasone drops were applied daily to prevent infection and inflammation. At the one follow-up, the redness and pain had resolved.
Inferior oblique myectomy effectively treats inferior oblique overaction and vertical strabismus associated with this condition.
The procedure in this video demonstrates a cosmetic lower lid internal blepharoplasty.
This combined procedure addresses multiple anatomic factors causing involutional entropion: the lateral tarsal strip is suspended to reduce horizontal laxity, and infraciliary rotation sutures are placed to stabilize the tarsus, evert the lower eyelid, and decrease orbicularis override. This approach is both efficient and effective, with a low risk of complications.
The procedure in the video demonstrates repair of the bulbar conjunctiva post Mohs Micrographic surgery with an amniotic membrane graft and fibrin glue
Muscle plication is a type of strabismus surgery that aims to tighten an extraocular muscle by partially folding the muscle under or over itself without disinsertion. The patient is a 14-year-old with alternating esotropia, who previously had a medial rectus recession. Therefore, she underwent plication of the lateral rectus muscle for this procedure.
A conjunctival incision is made in the fornix. Tenon’s capsule is dissected to expose the lateral rectus muscle. The lateral rectus muscle is isolated using a Stevens tenotomy hook followed by a Jameson muscle hook. A Stevens tenotomy hook is used to sweep around the muscle to confirm the location of the muscle pole. A caliper is used to mark the predetermined amount of plication, starting at the muscle insertion and marking further posteriorly on the muscle. The muscle is then secured at the location marked by the caliper with a double-armed 6-0 VicrylTM suture with a central bite and double-locking bites at each pole of the muscle. Plication is achieved by bringing the muscle anteriorly and attaching it to the sclera adjacent to the muscle insertion with half-scleral depth bites in crossed-swords fashion. The muscle is tied down to its new location and 6-0 plain gut sutures are used to close the conjunctival incision.
No complications arose during the procedure. Postoperatively, the patient had subconjunctival hemorrhage, injection, and pain that decreased over the following week. Neomycin-polymyxin-dexamethasone drops were applied daily to prevent infection and inflammation. At the three-month follow up, the redness had resolved. The alternating esotropia had improved.
Lateral rectus plication is a safe procedure that can effectively treat esotropia.
By: Michelle Huynh
College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
Brita Rook, MD
Arkansas Children’s Hospital – Department of Ophthalmology, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
Joseph Fong, MD
Jones Eye Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
Video was performed at Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA.
The procedure in this video demonstrates a bi-lobed glabellar flap reconstruction after Mohs micrographic excision of a basal cell carcinoma in the medial canthus of the eyelids.