This video shows a thyroid cyst removal that resulted in a hemithyroidectomy. The patient is placed under general anesthesia and intubated using a mac video laryngoscope and an EMG endotracheal tube. The ET tube has 4 stainless steel wire electrodes which touch the vocal cords for monitoring during surgery. After video intubation electrode placement is verified by direct stimulation of the area.
The surgeon makes a curvilinear skin crease incision in the front of the neck, to minimize the visibility of a scar. Afterwards, subplatysmal flaps are elevated and the midline raphe is dissected exposing the sternohyoid muscle, which is retracted laterally, and the sternothyroid muscle that is dissected off the left thyroid gland.
The thyroid cyst is found superficial and dissected, keeping in mind that anything suspicious for the recurrent laryngeal nerve is stimulated prior to dissection. The cyst is ruptured and sent for frozen pathology. The results returned as thyroid, so the surgeon proceeded with a hemithyroidectomy. The superior and inferior parathyroids were identified and dissected free. Hemostasis was achieved with electrocautery and confirmed with Valsalva. Strap musculature platysma and skin are closed. And lastly, mastisol and steri-strips are placed perpendicular to the wound.
While continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the gold standard for management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), surgical management is nonetheless a good alternative for patients that are unable to tolerate CPAP therapy. Pharyngoplasty is one such option. First described in 1976 by Dr. Ikematsu and popularized in the US by Dr. Fujita in 1981, the goal of the surgery is to suspend the velopharynx anterolaterally to improve patency of the airway for patients with collapse at the level of the velopharynx. Since its inception, it has undergone many iterations. This video demonstrates the steps to performing barbed reposition pharyngoplasty, a technique that has gained in popularity due to its short operative time and decreased post-operative morbidities. It utilizes the unique properties of V-loc sutures to evenly distribute tension when suspending the soft palate. Pharyngoplasty are best suited for patients with collapse at the level of the velopharynx and are not recommended for patients with significant posterior collapse at the level of the base of tongue.
45-year-old male with BMI of 33.1 and past medical history of OSA with poor sleep quality secondary to CPAP intolerance. Updated polysomnogram demonstrated moderate OSA with AHI of 15.7 with 1 central apnea. Physical examination demonstrated 1+ bilateral tonsil size and Friedman 3 palate position.
Pre-operative drug induced sleep endoscopy demonstrated mixed anteroposterior collapse of the velopharynx, partial lateral wall oropharyngeal collapse, with no significant collapse at the level of the base of tongue, hypopharynx, and epiglottis.
This video demonstrates the repair of a large nasoseptal perforation via an open approach with a combined temporalis fascia graft and polydioxanone (PDS) plate technique.
This video demonstrates the placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) in the internal jugular vein (IJV) in an infant using real-time ultrasound (US) guidance. Traditionally, the landmark approach has been the technique used to guide CVC placement. Presently, the use of ultrasound (US) for guiding placement has become commonplace due to increased accessibility, improved technology, and evidence of increased first-attempt success rates and decreased complications. Real-time US-guided central venous cannulation is now the recommended technique over the landmark technique by professional organizations. The experienced use of US allows for the detection of abnormal anatomy or findings (e.g. vein thrombosis) and allows for real-time visualization, which is especially helpful during difficult insertions, absence of landmarks, and in challenging patient groups such as in small infants.
32-month-old male with Coffin Siris syndrome, bilateral middle ear effusions, and velopharyngeal insufficiency who presents with a submucous cleft palate.
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