This video explains how electromyography endotracheal tubes work during thyroid surgery. Also known as, EMG ET tubes, these are a type of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring (IONM) which serve a big role preventing nerve injury by monitoring recurrent laryngeal nerve activity. Placement of the tube during intubation is important as the surface electrodes should be in contact with the vocal cords. Incorrect placement would render the tube ineffective and could cause damage to the nerve. Both, macintosh and video laryngoscopes can be used if there is poor visibility during intubation.
During surgery the tube may shift from its correct position for several reasons, primarily movement of the neck, so it’s important to check its correct placement throughout the duration of surgery. The tube itself has electrodes located at the tip. These electrodes come into contact with the vocal cords and detect electrical signals produced by the nerves. These signals are transmitted to a monitoring system which allows for continuous monitoring throughout the surgery. Once the EMG ET tube is properly placed, it can detect electrical signals produced by the nerve by using a stimulation probe. Whenever the nerve is stimulated surgeons and anesthesiologists can view the signals on a screen and listen to the sounds produced by pressing directly above the vocal cords.
The EMG signals are transmitted to a real-time monitoring system which helps surgeons view the signals on a screen and evaluate nerve integrity. During surgery this feedback helps surgeons adjust their technique to avoid nerve damage. Stimulation of the nerve creates a sinusoidal wave on the nerve integrity monitor along with an audible signal confirming its intactness. These waveforms, also known as electromyograms. In a normal resting state, should show very little electrical activity. The intensity can be seen by the amplitude of the wave. And the duration can provide information about the speed of muscle activation. A decrease or loss of EMG signals in response to nerve stimulation can indicate nerve damage or irritation.
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The procedure in this video demonstrates a lower lip sling suspension technique for isolated marginal mandibular nerve palsy using bidirectional fascia grafts.
The most common of the rare craniofacial clefts, Tessier’s No. 7 cleft is represented by a deficiency of tissue that may span from the oral commissure to the ear. (1) The repair of the cleft of the lip must include especial attention to restoring continuity of the orbicularis oris muscle as well the vermillion. This case is presented as an example of the repair of the Tessier 7 cleft lip deformity.
DOI #: http://dx.doi.org/10.17797/4h2edlts5zz
This is a visual representation of the treatment of a venous malformation within the substance of the tongue. The laser directly treats the venous malformation via selective photothermolysis while preventing injury to the tongue itself. Venous malformations infiltrate normal tissue as a birthmark but continue to grow with time and show no evidence of regression. Instead of excising the venous malformation with some of the tongue itself this is a way of controlling the lesion. As seen, the ND:YAG laser set at 25 Watts and 1.0 sec duration is used to shrink the venous malformation. The laser is fired in a polkadot fashion in order to prevent mucosal sloughing. The surface is relatively protected as the laser selective penetrates the VM.
Contributors: Conor Smith (Arkansas Children’s Hospital) and Gresham Richter M.d. (Arkansas Children’s Hospital)
The removal of tonsils is most often indicated by tonsillar hypertrophy contributing to obstructive sleep apnea or chronic/recurring throat infections from pathogens such as streptococcal bacteria. Electrocautery is the most commonly used technique to safely and effectively excavate the tonsils.
Contributors: Michael Golinko, MD, John Jones, MD, DMD, Kumar Patel, PA
Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and genioplasty in 5y/o girl with lymphatic malformation.
Contributors: Michael Golinko, Kumar Patel and Bridget O’Leary
LeFort I osteotomy and advancement in 18y/o female patient with maxillary hypoplasia
This video documents the steps typically followed during open reduction of isolated, depressed zygomatic arch fractures. The patient’s hair was shaven for clarity and for proper marking of key anatomic landmarks. Such landmarks are shown and discussed in sequence with the key surgical steps.
Marcus Couey, DDS, MD; Eric Reimer, DDS; Andrew Bhagyam, DDS; Phillip Freeman, DDS, MD; Jose M Marchena, DMD, MD
The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Presented is a case of submental intubation performed prior to maxillomandibular advancement for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Submental intubation is a viable alternative to tracheostomy for cases in which nasal intubation is contraindicated (e.g. trauma), or uninterrupted access to the oral cavity is preferred.  Briefly, the technique consists of performing oral intubation, and then exteriorizing the endotracheal tube through a tract created from the floor of mouth to the submental triangle. At the end of the case, the tube can be passed into the oral cavity, returning to an oral intubation.
Surgeon: Raj C. Dedhia, MD, MSCR, Department of Otolaryngology, Emory University School of Medicine
Video Production: Clara Lee, MS4, Emory University School of Medicine