Anterior cervical tracheoplasty using thyroid ala cartilage graft

Acquired tracheomalacia in the form of suprastomal collapse may occur as a complication of long-term tracheotomy dependence. Prolapse of the weakened suprastomal segment of trachea during inspiration may prevent safe decannulation. Management of such an issue may require a secondary surgical procedure such as anterior tracheoplasty.2 In 2001, Forte et al described the use of thyroid ala cartilage as a reliable cartilage source for anterior augmentation laryngotracheal reconstruction in neonates. This technique may yield a favorable result given similar thickness of the cartilages and use of a single incision operation for airway reconstruction.1 Here, we present a modification of the procedure described by Forte for anterior cervical tracheoplasty for the indication of suprastomal collapse preventing decannulation. The procedure begins with nasotracheal intubation and excision of tracheostomy tract and stoma. Strap muscles are then divided to expose the laryngotracheal cartilages. Cartilages are divided at the midline anteriorly, and the diseased segment of anterior trachea is discarded. The defect is measured, and if the size match is favorable, the superior thyroid alar cartilage is harvested. The resulting cartilage graft is slightly larger than the tracheal defect and is placed so that the perichondrium is facing into the airway lumen. Interrupted sutures of 4-0 vicryl are used to inset the graft in a submucosal fashion. Once the graft is secured with sutures, a Valsalva maneuver is performed after the cuff of the endotracheal tube is taken down to assure no leak. Strap muscles are reapproximated, a Penrose drain is placed, and the skin is closed. The child is kept intubated and sedated for 3 days before subsequent extubation in the intensive care unit. A bronchoscopy is performed at the 6-week postoperative interval to assure successful healing and to remove any persistent granulation tissue if present.

Neonatal Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis with Multivector External Devices

Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a craniofacial malformation characterized by micrognathia and glossoptosis, with or without cleft palate. A subset of infants with PRS will suffer from airway obstruction severe enough to merit surgical intervention. Surgeries for PRS include tongue lip adhesion, tracheotomy, gastrostomy, and bilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Distraction osteogenesis refers to a process in which a bone is lengthened after an initial osteotomy by means of separating the two resulting segments slowly over time. In the neonatal mandible, hardware used for distraction may be implanted beneath the skin or affixed externally. Each device has its advantages and disadvantages, however external devices are less expensive, do not typically require preoperative computed tomography scanning, may be adjusted easily throughout the distraction process, and are easily removed following consolidation, avoiding a second invasive procedure and lengthy anesthetic. This video presents the technique of neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis using multivector external distractors.

Grade 1 Microtia Repair Using Autologous Auricular Cartilage Transfer

The goal of auricular reconstruction is to achieve a natural appearance of the reconstructed side with a form that resembles the normal ear and endures over a lifetime. For severe deformities in which major cartilaginous elements are missing, established reconstructive techniques using alloplastic constructs wrapped in temporoparietal fascia or carved costal cartilage grafts may be employed. For cases of minor deformity in which all named cartilaginous components are present, albeit deficient compared to the normal side, transfer of autologous auricular skin and cartilage may be used to achieve symmetry between normal and abnormal ears. This video presents the surgical technique and results of a grade 1 microtia reconstruction using autologous auricular cartilage transfer. This two-stage method of reconstruction avoids the use of autologous rib or alloplastic materials and often avoids the use of skin grafting altogether.

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