A Pediatric Case of Levator Palpebrae Resection

In this video, we present a case of levator palpebrae resection in an 8-year-old patient with right eye ptosis.

In the pre-op photo, significant ptosis of the right eye can be appreciated. An incision was planned along the lid crease. 0.1 ml of 1: 100,000 epinephrine was injected. An incision was made by electro-cautery along the lid through the skin and orbicularis. Westcott scissors were used to further dissect horizontally. The septum was identified and opened. The preaponeurotic fat was identified and lifted, and the levator aponeurosis was identified. The levator was then tagged with two 6.0 Vicryle sutures, and isolated from surrounding tissues. Next, three6-0 Mersilene sutures were run from the upper tarsus to the levator. They are tightened with releasable notes. The lid elevation and contour were evaluated and adjustments were made until contour and height were equal and appropriate. The temporary surgical knots were transitioned into permanent surgical knots. Approximately 14 mm of excess levator was then excised. Next, three lid crease formation sutures were placed using 6-0 Vicryl. These were attached to the subcu-skin and levator to recreate the upper eyelid crease. Skin closure was performed with 6-0 fast-absorbing gut sutures. In this one-week post-op photo, the ptosis of his right eye was improved.

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Medial Orbital Dermoid Cyst Removal

Dermoid cysts are the most common orbital tumor in childhood. It is a developmental benign choristoma, arising from ectodermal sequestration along the lines of embryonic fusion of mesodermal processes. It is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and expands slowly due to constant desquamation and dermal glandular elements. They are usually smooth, painless, mobile, or partially mobile lesions mostly present at the fronto-zygomatic suture with proptosis, displacement, ptosis, or diplopia, depending on depth and extent1. 

Although lateral orbital dermoid cysts are common, medial orbital dermoid cysts are rare2. Our patient had a right medial orbital congenital dermoid cyst since birth. At the presentation, the patient was 2 years old. On CT, the cyst measured 5 mm at the upper lid/medial canthus of the right orbit with subtle bone remodeling. He had a mildly clogged tear duct on the left but was otherwise asymptomatic. The decision was made to surgically remove the dermoid cyst. 

In this video, we present a case of removal of a medial orbital dermoid cyst in a 2-year-old patient. 
An incision was planned directly over the lesion. It was marked following the natural skin tension lines of the face to give the most natural esthetic appearance.
A small amount of Local anesthetic (0.5 ml of Lidocaine and Epinephrine) was injected under the skin to promote hemostasis and postoperative pain control.
A continuous Incision was made with a #15 blade on the skin.
Westcott scissors were used to dissect further through the subcutaneous tissue to expose the cyst and slowly dissect it from the normal tissue surrounding it.
Extra care was made to protect the integrity and avoid the rupture of the cyst.
After the entire cyst was freed from the surrounding tissue,  it was carefully removed from its attachments to the periosteum using Westcott scissors.
The incision was closed in a two-layer fashion.
The deeper layer was closed by 6.0 Vicryl in a vertical mattress fashion with 2 interrupted sutures.
Next, wound edge eversion was achieved by placing two interrupted, superficial 5.0 fast-absorbing gut sutures. This will minimize the scar appearance.
Dermabond was applied next and the sutures were protected by a small piece of Tegaderm. This will be left in place until it spontaneously falls off.

Inferior Oblique Myectomy

Inferior oblique myectomy is a type of strabismus surgical procedure that aims to weaken an extraocular muscle by transecting it. The patient is a four old with a history of inferior oblique overaction and vertical strabismus, which can be corrected by resection of the inferior oblique muscle.

The ointment was applied to the cornea. Forced ductions were performed and identified restriction of the inferior oblique. A conjunctival incision is made in the fornix. Tenon’s capsule is dissected to expose the Inferior Oblique. The inferior oblique muscle is isolated using a Stevens tenotomy hook followed by Jameson muscle hooks. The inferior rectus was identified on a steven’s hook medially to the inferior oblique. The lateral rectus was then identified on a steven’s hook laterally to the inferior oblique. This was done to ensure that neither muscle was incorporated with the portions of the inferior oblique muscle to be cut. Wescott scissors were used to cut both ends of the muscle. Bipolar cautery forceps were used to cauterize the resected proximal and distal ends of the inferior oblique muscle. The two ends were released and the remaining muscle ends were allowed to retract into the orbit. The conjunctiva was closed using a plain gut suture.

No complications arose during the procedure. Postoperatively, the patient had a subconjunctival hemorrhage, injection, and pain that decreased over the following week. Neomycin-polymyxin-dexamethasone drops were applied daily to prevent infection and inflammation. At the one follow-up, the redness and pain had resolved.

Inferior oblique myectomy effectively treats inferior oblique overaction and vertical strabismus associated with this condition.

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