Anteriorly-based Tongue Flap for Large Palatal Fistula

This video presents a case of a large hard palate fistula, which was repaired with an anterior tongue flap. The details of the procedure are described and demonstrated in detail, including both stages of the reconstruction, which were timed 3-4 weeks apart.

Barbed Reposition Pharyngoplasty as Surgical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Background:

While continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the gold standard for management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), surgical management is nonetheless a good alternative for patients that are unable to tolerate CPAP therapy. Pharyngoplasty is one such option. First described in 1976 by Dr. Ikematsu and popularized in the US by Dr. Fujita in 1981, the goal of the surgery is to suspend the velopharynx anterolaterally to improve patency of the airway for patients with collapse at the level of the velopharynx. Since its inception, it has undergone many iterations. This video demonstrates the steps to performing barbed reposition pharyngoplasty, a technique that has gained in popularity due to its short operative time and decreased post-operative morbidities. It utilizes the unique properties of V-loc sutures to evenly distribute tension when suspending the soft palate. Pharyngoplasty are best suited for patients with collapse at the level of the velopharynx and are not recommended for patients with significant posterior collapse at the level of the base of tongue.

Case Overview:

45-year-old male with BMI of 33.1 and past medical history of OSA with poor sleep quality secondary to CPAP intolerance. Updated polysomnogram demonstrated moderate OSA with AHI of 15.7 with 1 central apnea. Physical examination demonstrated 1+ bilateral tonsil size and Friedman 3 palate position.

Pre-operative drug induced sleep endoscopy demonstrated mixed anteroposterior collapse of the velopharynx, partial lateral wall oropharyngeal collapse, with no significant collapse at the level of the base of tongue, hypopharynx, and epiglottis.

Septal Perforation Repair with Temporalis Fascia and PDS Plate

This video demonstrates the repair of a large nasoseptal perforation via an open approach with a combined temporalis fascia graft and polydioxanone (PDS) plate technique.

Thyroid Cyst Removal with Hemithyroidectomy

This video shows a thyroid cyst removal that resulted in a hemithyroidectomy. The patient is placed under general anesthesia and intubated using a mac video laryngoscope and an EMG endotracheal tube. The ET tube has 4 stainless steel wire electrodes which touch the vocal cords for monitoring during surgery. After video intubation electrode placement is verified by direct stimulation of the area.

The surgeon makes a curvilinear skin crease incision in the front of the neck, to minimize the visibility of a scar. Afterwards, subplatysmal flaps are elevated and the midline raphe is dissected exposing the sternohyoid muscle, which is retracted laterally, and the sternothyroid muscle that is dissected off the left thyroid gland.

The thyroid cyst is found superficial and dissected, keeping in mind that anything suspicious for the recurrent laryngeal nerve is stimulated prior to dissection. The cyst is ruptured and sent for frozen pathology. The results returned as thyroid, so the surgeon proceeded with a hemithyroidectomy. The superior and inferior parathyroids were identified and dissected free. Hemostasis was achieved with electrocautery and confirmed with Valsalva. Strap musculature platysma and skin are closed. And lastly, mastisol and steri-strips are placed perpendicular to the wound.

Anteriorly-based Tongue Flap for Large Palatal Fistula

This video presents a case of a large hard palate fistula, which was repaired with an anterior tongue flap. The details of the procedure are described and demonstrated in detail, including both stages of the reconstruction, which were timed 3-4 weeks apart.

Endoscopic Resection of Forehead Arteriovenous Malformation

This video describes the novel approach to removing an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the forehead using an endoscopic technique in a trichial incision. A 17-year-old presented to the Otolaryngology clinic with facial pain and headaches, as well as a pulsatile mass on her forehead. Angiography was performed and proved the mass to be an AVM. Angiography also revealed that one of the feeders was coming directly off the ophthalmic artery. She had no other neurological or ophthalmological symptoms. However, because of the ophthalmic artery feeder, embolization could not be performed due to the risk of blindness.

We made an incision in the hairline, down to the subgaleal plane, and the entirety of the mass was revealed. Using endoscopy for visualization, the feeder vessels were carefully tied off using a knot pusher and ligated. The vessels were then cut and the mass removed. The skin was closed and a pressure dressing placed.

At her post-operative visits, the patient was very pleased with the cosmetic outcomes of the surgery. Of note, there was no facial numbness, facial nerve weakness, or vision changes. We will continue to monitor the child, but as of yet there has been no evidence of recurrence of her AVM.

Supraglottoplasty

A procedure done to treat pediatric lar

Midline Cervical Cleft Excision of Fibrous Cord – Z Plasty Closure

Z-plasty allows broken-line closure, reorientation of the defect in the horizontal plane with re-creation of a cervicomental angle, and most importantly, a lengthening of the anterior neck skin that aids in preventing recurrent contracture. We present our experience managing a congenital cervical midline cleft in a 3-month-old patient and describe a simple technique for planning the ideal Z-plasty closure. No simple description for planning the ideal closure for this defect could be found in the otolaryngology literature.

Selective Stapedial tendon and Tensor Tympani tenotomy for the treatment of Middle Ear Myoclonus in a pediatric patient

Objective tinnitus is a rare phenomenon whereby a patient perceives sound in the absence of external auditory stimuli, that is also observed by the examiner. Unlike subjective tinnitus which is thought to be somatosensory and usually difficult to cure, objective tinnitus is more likely to have an identifiable cause amenable to treatment. The differential for objective tinnitus includes aberrant vascular anatomy affecting the temporal bone, patulous eustachian tube function, and abnormal myoclonic activity of the palatal or middle ear muscles.1  

We present a 16-year-old female who presented for evaluation of objective tinnitus. On physical examination, an intermittent rhythmic clicking was identified. Visualization of both the tympanic membrane and palate during active audible tinnitus was observed and found to be normal. A hearing test was performed demonstrating normal hearing and speech thresholds as well as normal tympanogram. Acoustic reflex testing demonstrated absent decay in both ears and  spontaneous discharge for the right ear in response to both high and very low stimulus indicating abnormal stapedial and tensor tympani function. MRA demonstrated normal vascular anatomy and MRI was obtained demonstrating normal anatomy without lesions of the brainstem, cochleovestibular nerves, or ear or mastoid pathology. The patients was subsequently diagnosed with isolated middle ear myocolonus (MEM). Treatment options including medical versus surgical therapy were discussed as has previously been described. The patient ultimately elected for surgical tenotomy of the stapedial and tensor tympani tendons. Using endoscopic technique, a middle ear exploration was performed. Canal injection was performed with standard tympanomeatal flap elevation was assisted with epinephrine pledgets. The Annular ligament was identified and the middle ear was entered. Additional dissections was performed superiorly, and the chorda tympani nerve was identified and preserved. The stapedial tendon was visualized emanating from the pyramidal eminence to the posterior crus of the stapes. Balluci scissors were used to sharply incise the tendon and the remaining ends were reflected using a Rosen needle to prevent re-anastamosis. Additional dissection along the malleus was performed to gain access to the tensor tympani tendon. A 30 degree angled endoscope was utilized to visualize the tensor tympani tendon extending forward from the cochleariform process to the neck of the malleus. The angled 6400 Beaver blade was used to sharply incise the tendon, requiring multiple passess due to the thickness of the tendon. The sharply incised ends of both tendons were clearly visualized. The tympanomeatal flap was re draped and secured with gel foam packing. The patient was seen in follow up three weeks post operatively with a well healed ear drum, resolution of her objective tinnitus, normal hearing, and absent stapedial reflexes. The patient and mother were happy. Endoscopic stapedial and tensor tympani tenotomy is a feasible technique for isolated MEM in the pediatric population.

Endoscopic Nd:Yag and Bleomycin Injection for the management of a Hypopharyngeal Venous Malformation

Venous malformations (VM) are congenital lesions, frequently affecting the head and neck, with poor respect for tissue planes. Established treatments include observation, sclerotherapy, laser, and surgical resection.1  

Lesions affecting the upper airways present unique challenge due to frequent unresectability and difficult access/exposure for alternative standard treatments. We describe our approach of standard endoscopic airway techniques for the administration of advanced treatment modalities including simultaneous laser and sclerotherapy for an extensive airway VM.

Our patient is a 16-year-old female with an extensive multi-spatial VM with associated airway obstruction.  The patient suffered from severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) dependence as a result of airway compression. Direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy demonstrated extensive venous staining and large vascular channels of the hypopharynx. Lumenis Nd:Yag laser (Yokneam, Israel) via 550 micron fiber was passed under telescopic visualization. Treatment via previously described “polka dot” technique was performed (15W, 0.5 pulse duration) with immediate tissue response. The largest vascular channel was accessed via 25-gauge butterfly needle. Immediate return of blood following lesion puncture confirmed intralesional placement. Reconstituted bleomycin (1 U/kg; max dose = 15 U per treatment) was injected and hemostasis achieved with afrin pledgets. The patient was intubated overnight. She was extubated the next morning and advanced to a regular diet, discharging post-operative day two. Post-operative flexible laryngoscopy demonstrated significant improvement in the treatment areas, and follow up sleep study demonstrated sleep apnea resolution with liberation of her CPAP therapy.

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