In-Office Awake Vocal Fold Steroid Injection

Contributors: Clark A. Rosen

Superficial injection of steroids into the true vocal folds can be performed to reduce or prevent vocal fold scar formation as well as for treatments of benign vocal fold lesions.


Editor Recruited By: Michael M. Johns, III, MD

In-Office KTP Treatment of Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

Contributors: Clark A. Rosen

Laryngeal recurrent respiratory papillomatosis can be treated in the office using a 532-nm pulsed KTP laser under local anesthesia while the patient is awake without sedation.


Editor Recruited By: Michael Johns III, MD

Endoscopic Ampullectomy

Contributor: Darin L. Dufault

This video illustrates two cases of ampullary adenoma treated with endoscopic papillectomy (a.k.a.

endoscopic ampullectomy in many manuscripts). Along with local surgical ampullectomy and

pancreaticoduodenectomy, endoscopic papillectomy is an established treatment option for benign

lesions of the ampulla of Vater. For the majority of benign ampullary lesions, complete endoscopic

resection of ampullary lesions is usually feasible. Limitations to endoscopic therapy include deep

extension into the bile or pancreatic duct, > 50% lateral extension along the duodenal wall, and

carcinomatous transformation. In general, endoscopic resection should be considered equivalent to

local surgical ampullectomy in terms of its depth of dissection.

In the first case, the patient was noted to have adenomatous appearing change of the ampulla

on endoscopy. An electrocautery snare is used to remove the entire papilla. When technically feasible,

cholangiopancreatography should precede tissue resection to evaluate for intraductal extension and

identify the orifices for post-resection therapy. Since this was unsuccessful prior to resection, the

pancreatic duct is then cannulated and a pancreatogram is obtained. A pancreatic duct stent is then

placed after pancreatic sphincterotomy to minimize the risk of post-ampullectomy and ERCP

pancreatitis, and to prevent stenosis of the pancreatic orifice long-term. Then, a cholangiogram is

performed, confirming no intraductal extension and to facilitate a biliary sphincterotomy.

The second case is a patient referred for further evaluation of cholestatic liver function tests and

a dilated bile duct. Endoscopically, they were noted to have a protuberant papilla. Endoscopic

ultrasound (EUS) showed a mass between the bile and pancreatic ducts and within the ampulla of Vater,

along with a significantly dilated bile duct. The mass did not invade the duodenal wall, as showed by

preservation of the muscularis propria. In cases where malignancy is not suspected and in smaller

lesions, EUS may not be required. Prior to papillectomy, the pancreatic duct was cannulated and

methylene blue injected into the duct to allow easier identification of the duct following papillectomy.

The mass was also able to be seen on cholangiogram (green circle). It is preferred to remove the papilla

en bloc, as shown in case one, although this is not always possible. There was a small amount of

residual tissue at the core of the lesion that was further resected in piecemeal fashion using a hot snare

with blended cut and coagulation current. Biliary and pancreatic stents were then placed to minimize

the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis, delayed post-ampullectomy bleeding, and orifice stenosis. These

stents are typically removed after 1-2 months, at which time the resection site may be surveyed for

residual adenomatous tissue. Last, a small amount of residual abnormal appearing tissue was ablated

using APC.

Editor Recruited By: Jeffrey Matthews, MD


Endoscopic Assisted Laparoscopic Transgastric Resection of GE Junction Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)

Contributors: Irving Waxman and John C. Alverdy

Laparoscopic intragastric resection of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor 0.5cm distal to the gastroesophageal junction performed with oral endoscopic assistance.

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Editor Recruited By: Jeffrey Matthews, MD

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