Branchial cleft cysts are a benign anomaly caused by incomplete obliteration of a primordial branchial cleft. They typically appear in childhood or adolescence, but can appear at any age. They present as a non-tender, fluctuant mass following an upper respiratory infection, most commonly at the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. These lesions are thought to originate during the 4th week of gestation when the branchial arches fail to fuse. The second branchial cleft is the most common site (95%) and cysts from in this distribution can affect cranial nerves VII, IX, and XII.
Microdebrider Assisted Lingual Tonsillectomy
Adrian Williamson, Michael Kubala MD, Adam Johnson MD PhD, Megan Gaffey MD, and Gresham Richter MD
The lingual tonsils are a collection of lymphoid tissue found on the base of the tongue. The lingual tonsils along with the adenoid, tubal tonsils, palatine tonsils make up Waldeyer’s tonsillar ring. Hypertrophy of the lingual tonsils contributes to obstructive sleep apnea and lingual tonsillectomy can alleviate this intermittent airway obstruction.1,2 Lingual tonsil hypertrophy can manifest more rarely with chronic infection or dysphagia. A lingual tonsil grading system has been purposed by Friedman et al 2015, which rates lingual tonsils between grade 0 and grade 4. Friedman et al define grade 0 as absent lingual tonsils and grade 4 lingual tonsils as lymphoid tissue covering the entire base of tongue and rising above the tip of the epiglottis in thickness.3
Lingual tonsillectomy has been approached by a variety of different surgical techniques including electrocautery, CO2 laser, cold ablation (coblation) and microdebridement.4-9 Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has also been used to improve exposure of the tongue base to perform lingual tonsillectomy.10-13 At this time, there is not enough evidence to support that one of these techniques is superior.
Here, we describe the microdebrider assisted lingual tonsillectomy in an 8 year-old female with Down Syndrome. This patient was following in Arkansas Children’s Sleep Disorders Center and found to have persistent moderate obstructive sleep apnea despite previous adenoidectomy and palatine tonsillectomy. Unfortunately, she did not tolerate her continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. The patient underwent polysomnography 2 months preoperatively which revealed an oxygen saturation nadir of 90%, an apnea-hypopnea index of 7.7, and an arousal index of 16.9. There was no evidence of central sleep apnea. The patient was referred to otolaryngology to evaluate for possible surgical management.
Given the severity of the patient’s symptoms and clinical appearance, a drug induced sleep state endoscopy with possible surgical intervention was planned. The drug induced sleep state endoscopy revealed grade IV lingual tonsil hypertrophy causing obstruction of the airway with collapse of the epiglottis to the posterior pharyngeal wall. A jaw thrust was found to relieve this displacement and airway obstruction. The turbinates and pharyngeal tonsils were not causing significant obstruction of the airway. At this time the decision was made to proceed with microdebrider assisted lingual tonsillectomy.
First, microlaryngoscopy and bronchoscopy were performed followed by orotracheal intubation using a Phillips 1 blade and a 0 degree Hopkins rod. Surgical exposure was achieved using suspension laryngoscopy with the Lindholm laryngoscope and the 0 degree Hopkins rod. 1% lidocaine with epinephrine is injected into the base of tongue for hemostatic control using a laryngeal needle under the guidance of the 0 degree Hopkins rod. 1. The 4 mm Tricut Sinus Microdebrider blade was set to 5000 RPM and inserted between the laryngoscope and the lips to resect the lingual tonsils. Oxymetazoline-soaked pledgets were used periodically during resection to maintain hemostasis and proper visualization. A subtotal lingual tonsillectomy was completed with preservation of the fascia overlying the musculature at the base of tongue.
She was extubated following surgery and there were no postoperative complications. Four months after postoperatively the patient followed up at Arkansas Children’s Sleep Disorders Center and was found to have notable clinical improvement especially with her daytime symptoms. A postoperative polysomnography was not performed given the patient’s clinical improvement.
This is a visual representation of the treatment of a venous malformation within the substance of the tongue. The laser directly treats the venous malformation via selective photothermolysis while preventing injury to the tongue itself. Venous malformations infiltrate normal tissue as a birthmark but continue to grow with time and show no evidence of regression. Instead of excising the venous malformation with some of the tongue itself this is a way of controlling the lesion. As seen, the ND:YAG laser set at 25 Watts and 1.0 sec duration is used to shrink the venous malformation. The laser is fired in a polkadot fashion in order to prevent mucosal sloughing. The surface is relatively protected as the laser selective penetrates the VM.
Infantile hemangiomas are vascular tumors composed of proliferating endothelial cells. They uniquely undergo rapid expansion from birth to 6-8 months of age and subsequent slow dissolution over several years thereafter. Some hemangiomas are at risk of causing functional problems during their growth phase as seen in this upper eyebrow lesion obstructing the visual axis. Laser, surgical and medical treatment options are available for problematic hemangiomas. This patient was elected to undergo excision to completely remove the lesion and forego a long course of medical therapy (propranolol). Because of the their vascular nature, excision of hemangiomas requires careful planning and hemostasis. The hemangioma is marked in elliptical fashion along natural aesthetic facial lines along the brow. The inferior mark in incised first. Careful subdermal dissection is critical to completely excise to the hemangioma near the surface and find the appropriate plane. Control of bleeding is maintained by monopolar and bipolar electrocautery as well as dissecting the lesion from one side and alternating to the other. The plane of deep dissection is rarely below the subcutaneous layer thus protecting important nerves and vessels. Complete removal is possible. Closure is performed with dissolvable monocryl or PDS suture with dermabond superficially. A plastic eyeshield (blue) is placed at the beginning of case to protect the patient’s cornea during the procedure.
Contributors: Gresham Richter
Here we present endoscopic excision of a concha bullosa (a pneumatized middle turbinate) that was causing obstruction in the left nasal cavity. This particular patient failed medical management of his chronic sinusitis including antibiotic and steroid therapy. The concha bullosa was causing obstruction of the maxillary sinus ostium and deviation of the nasal septum. Resection of the concha bullosa was necessary in order to complete a functional endoscopic sinus surgery afterward and septoplasty (not shown).
DOI # 10.17797/pyzfxehca8
Author Recruited by: Gresham Ritcher
Contributors: Juliana Bonilla-Velez and Gresham Richter
This patient presented with an anterior neck mass that was mobile with tongue movement. This is consistent with a thyroglossal duct cyst. The following video demonstrates the excision of a thyroglossal duct cyst using the Sistrunk procedure.
Tympanoplasty with tragal cartilage graft, postauricular approach
Blake Hollowoa, Michael Kubala, Gresham Richter.
Tympanic membrane (TM) perforations arise from multiple conditions including acute otitis media, barotrauma, chronic eustachian tube dysfunction, or as a complication of pressure equalization (PE) tube insertion. Most perforations heal spontaneously or with conservative measures such as ototopical drops and dry ear precautions. Perforations that do not heal can lead to conductive hearing loss, chronic infection, or cholesteatoma. A 6-year-old patient with a persistent TM perforation presented with otalgia and otorrhea. A tympanoplasty with a tragal cartilage graft was performed to repair the patient’s TM perforation.
The patient was intubated and the operation carried out under general anesthesia. Facial electrodes were inserted for facial nerve monitoring. The patient was prepped and draped in sterile fashion. The external canal was suctioned and irrigated. A tragal incision was then made to harvest a 1 cm piece of cartilage for the TM graft. The tragal incision was closed with monocryl suture. A postauricular incision was made in the natural skin crease to expose the posterior canal. Canal incisions were made to enter the external canal. A tympanomeatal flap was elevated until the middle ear was entered. The previously harvested tragal cartilage graft was inserted medial to the native TM perforation. Gel-Foam was inserted medial to the graft for support. Tragal perichondrium was inserted lateral to the tragal cartilage graft. Gel-Foam was then inserted lateral to the graft for support. The periosteum and postauricular incision were closed with vicryl suture. The external canal was inspected, then antibiotic ointment and an ear wick was inserted. The patient was dressed using a Glasscock dressing.
The patient was discharged the same day and seen in clinic two weeks from his surgery. The incisions were healing well with no indications of infection or wound dehiscence. His pain was resolved and an appointment for formal audiology was scheduled for a 3-month follow-up visit.
Tympanoplasty with a tragal cartilage graft using a postauricular approach is a successful method to surgically correct persistent tympanic membrane perforations.
The following video demonstrates the authors’ method for performing a tracheostomy in a pediatric patient. Details of important anatomical landmarks and surgical technique are demonstrated in the video.
Chrystal Lau, BA. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
Brad Stone, BA. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
Austin DeHart, MD. Arkansas Children’s Hospital.
Michael Kubala, MD. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
Gresham Richter, MD. Arkansas Children’s Hospital.